The dirty role of army, Judiciary and civil-military bureaucracy in Pakistan
Pakistan Army , bureaucracy and judiciary were the creations of the British colonial regime in British India. And it was necessary for the colonial regime to have a powerful state apparatus to subordinate the native social classes.
When the British wanted to divide British India, they found that they could use Islam to bring the Muslim favouring Pakistan. But they also thought that who would run the government. The British used the same formula as they had been using it in British India to rule 400 millions Indians. And that formula was the union of the Army , bureaucracy and judiciary as the colonial force to rule India. At that time there 200,000 British Army where 61% were non-Hindu and in thsoe 61% non-Hindus, 70% were basically Punjabi Muslims. There were 1200 bureaucrats . And army and bureaucracy were supported by Judiciary. So by these three forces, the British had been ruling the India. So they decided to use the same formula in Pakistan too and handed over Pakistan to them. So Pakistan was hijacked by Punjab army, bureaucracy and judiciary which continues till to date. By these three forces, Punjab has made the remaining provinces its hostages.
Pakistan inherited that over-developed state structure and its institutionalized practices from the colonial period.
The Feudal lords and the migrated industrialists from India were on the same page with Army , civil military bureaucracy and judiciary. And the economic activities were bureaucratically directed. And thus an independent material basis was constituted for the autonomy of the bureaucratic military oligarchy.
After Pakistan came into being Mohammadd Ali Jinnah straight away dissolved the democratically elected government of North West Frontier Province now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. So Mohammadd Ali Jinnah who was known as the Great infidel , great killer of the people , was then called the great killer of Democracy as well. As a result Mohammad Ali Jinnah put the foundation of the dissolution of the assemblies in the future of Pakistan.
With the full knowledge of Jinnah, the Pakistani forces entered Kashmir in September, 1947. To enter Kashmir , Army wanted to legitimize the looting of the public exchequer. There was an article in the DAWN newspaper( the mouthpiece of Muslim league) at that time , WE DON’T NEED BREAD AND BUTTER , WE NEED GUNS.
Jinnah couldn’t do any thing, because the army wanted. And Jinnah Knew any way that the real owner of Pakistan are the above mentioned three institutions.
If the the politician respect the role of bureaucratic military oligarchy , they become a partner. But if they challenge it , then they are over thrown.
Once Jinnah said that the pillars of society , the land lords, the well to do lawyers , the rich businessmen and the titled gentry were the main support of Muslim league , who were not committed to the national cause but only to their personal benefits . So Jinnah called them fake coins. But the question arises why those fake coins were with Jinnah and not with the Muhatma Gandi , because Jinnah himself was a fake coin.
The piece of land in the Name of Pakistan was separated from the Indian subcontinent for exclusive rule and malicious usage by Generals backed by bureaucracy and Judiciary . Since the first day all public institutions are being controlled by army generals, bureaucracy and judiciary in the name of eradicating political corruption.
And the civil dictators control it in the name of democracy. But in both cases only the poor people of Pakistan are being suffered.
The interference of army in government affairs had even started in the Mohammad Ali days. Just after formation of Pakistan , one General Akbar dared to know from Jinnah why you have posted that man at this post and why you have not posted the other one. The General Akbar was found involved in a revolt against first Prime minister Liaqat Ali. He knew that the Army was the real owner of Pakistan. Jinnah was just tool used by the British empire. And Mohammad Ali Jinnah who himself was infidel , non believer used Islam as a tool for his personal benefits and Pakistan. Thus the tussle between army and civil governments could find its route from day one after the creation of the Pakistan.
Since 1947, Pakistan has been struggling to become a nation.Its political reins have been effectively in the hands of the Pakistan Army for more than 35 years. Army exercise control even when civilians were titular rulers of the land.
General Kiramat ex, chief of Army , states ‘ As far as the track record of the military as rulers is concerned , it is not better than the civilian. Thus leaving the state more weakened and unable to function whenever the military returned to its barracks. In Pakistan democracy has always been democracy controlled by the army. During Musharraf it was called a shame democracy.
After the partition ,when the Punjab Army and Punjab politicians looked around , they found that there were two outsiders here. One was Mohd Ali Jinnah and the other was Liaqat Ali khan, because they were Refugees from India. So they decided to get rid of both of them.
First they sent Jinnah to Ziart Balochistan where there were no medial facilities. But when he was back at the Karachi airport he was given an ambulance where there was no fuel. . Jinnah died on 11 september , 1948 and when a Punjabi bureaucrat saw him dead, he allegedly said that ” the bastard is dead”.
Liaqat ali appointed Khwaja Nazimuddin , an inefficient soul , as governor general
When Ayub khan was becoming the chief of Army staff , first the British General Gracy cleared him on 15th January 1951
Against the background , Liaqat attempted to build up the armed forces of his new nation.
But after the death of Jinnah, the days of LiaQat were numbered in the eyes of the Pujnab. The Punjabi politicians started to discuss him in their circles as weak , ineffective and lacking a strong political base in Pakistan, because he was outsider , a refugee from India during Partition.
Thats why on 16th October 1951 when Liaqat was delivering speech in the company bagh now liaqat bagh , he was shot dead. The killer Said Akbar surrendered but he was killed to abolish the proof. No Punjab chief minister or any other Punjabi political leader was there on that day.
The IG of special branch of police was , Nawab Aitzazuddin, head of the investigation team, died in air crash with his report about Liaqat Ali’s murder and thus the liaqat murder case was closed for ever.
Kwaja Nazimuddin became the prime minister and a bureaucrat, the finance secretary , Gulam Mohammad was appointed as the governor general.
Punjab was seeing very closely to ensure that it had not lose its powerful position on the national front.
At that time Army secretly hinted the chief minister of Pujnab Mumtaz daulatana to create political and social unrest in Punjab . Thus Mumtaz Daulatana was fuelling the unrest anti Ahmadies .
Martial law was imposed on 8th March 1953. It was an anti Ahmadi campaign.
Major general Mohammad Azam khan quelled the unrest. It was just a show up of the military to the people. Major General Azam Khan Quick Actions and the Army’s presence had also established the presence of the army as a new major force on the national political scene. The Army was regarded as the saviour of law and order by the local population of Lahore.
Slogan of long live general Azam and long live Pakistan Army were often heard at public events.
A clear divide was created between the civil and military. The military was taking the view that the civilians had botched affairs.
And thus the army was preparing for big games in future.
As the military got prestige , khwaja Nazimuddin, the prime minister , was losing prestige. He was sacked by the Governor general on 17th April 1953 and Mohd Ali bogra who was Ambassador in Washington, was appointed as the prime minister. In 1954 the army man turned bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza was appointed the governor of East Pakistan .
The clandestine interference of the army and bureaucrats didn’t give the civilians to strengthen the political institutions , that’s why the civilian institutions got weaker which strengthened the role of bureaucrats and Army. The Army was already working towards a future in which it would control the direction of the country , at first indirectly and later directly.
The Army and bureaucrats were playing the role to make the politicians to fight with each other. In this warfare situation , the constituent Assembly was dissolved . Ghulam Mohd was replaced by Iskandar mirza as the governor general and Mohd Ali Bogra was sent back to Washington as Ambassador and another bureaucrat Mohammad Ali Chaudry became the prime minister on 11th August , 1955. In 1956 Iskandar Mirza was called back from East Pakistan , inserted him in the cabinet.
And when the new constitution was approved by the Assembly on 26th February 1956, Iskandar Mirza became the president of Pakistan under New constitution.
But in the mean time , Ayub khan was preparing himself to take the destiny of the country in his control.
There are three military interventions of 1958 , 1977 and 1999 . These coups took place to protect and extend only the institutional interests of military.
In Pakistan the military and bureaucracy were fairly entrenched and organised in 1947 mentioned before .
Pakistani state has been run largely by the civil service , backed by the Army.
The main pillars of establishment , the civilian bureaucracy and military , were well entrenched within the polity.
Iskandar Mirza declared that the masses of Pakistan are overwhelming illiterate and irresponsible , they need controlled democracy , controlled by the Army , bureaucracy and judiciary.
The American military aid to Pakistan from 1953 onwards gave the Pakistani military confidence to overthrow the government. The weak civilian government in Pakistan is due to the presence of a strongly institutionalised military, that could lead to military coups in Pakistan whenever it wanted.
General Ayub Khan had his own person in Pakistan Embassy in Washington who kept him informed privately of developments on the scene.
During his visit to Washington , Ayub managed to forge a tight relationship with his US interlocutors , gaining confidence and support. After getting green signal from US to provide the military assistance , he wrote a letter to Iskander Mira and informed him about the progress. At that time Ayub Khan was asking only for military assistance not any other economic assistance. It also evaluated him within Pakistan hierarchy and in effect allowing the Pakistan army to begin making foreign policy decisions on behalf of the government of Pakistan.
When American delegation had to come to Pakistan, a highly secret meeting was convened on the 24th February 1954 in GHQ with general Ayub khan in the chair. However , at that time question arose that either the defence minister or the President Iskandar mirza should preside the meeting but the Army was not ready for that.
On 26th March 1954 , meeting took place with the American delegation with the Pakistan army having the largest contingent which indicated not only the important role of the Army but also a prominent and dominant role of Pakistani Army in running the affairs of Pakistan for the next couple of decades.
On the second day of the meeting when General Meyers was asked about the economic assistance , he said it had not been in the agenda with us , so his team was restricted in the scope to meeting Pakistan’s short falls in equipment and training. They were not going to deal with economic assistance.
On 19 May 1954 a mutual defence agreement was signed between the USA and the government of Pakistan in Karachi.
The foreign policy of Pakistan was managed by Ayub and Iskander Mirza.
The prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra announced in September 1954 that the assembly was ready to go forward with a draft constitution but the Bureaucrat turned governor general Ghulam Mohammad dismissed the central government on 24 th October 1954 and called the fresh elections which as usual never took place.
On the domestic front , the Pakistani bureaucracy has always seen itself as the inheritor of the mantle of government from the British.
Ayub started to show his unhappiness with the current political situation and told to John k. Emmerson the US Chard d’Affairs in Pakistan , about the Army coup in Pakistan, and told him that US will understand it. Ayub Khan also asked his conversation not to be mentioned to any other Pakistani or British person.
When Ghulam Mohammad dismissed the constituent Assembly , the president of the constituent assembly, Maulvi Tamizuddin appealed to Sindh High court . The high court decided in favour of Maulvi Tamizuddin but Ghulam Mohammad challenged this decision in the federal court which dismissed the provincial court decision.
To counter the majority of East Pakistan in National Assembly , when one unit of west Pakistan was imposed . It allowed the predominantly Punjab , Punjab dominated Army and bureaucracy to exert its influence on the country’s politics with more effect.
The Pakistan (Punjabi) army and bureaucracy was behind this game and to convert the peoples attention from it, they decided to take the chief minister from the small province but Punjab was behind the curtain. So they selected Dr, Khan sahib , the brother of Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan. However , Dr.Khan Sahib was even unable to find a safe seat in his native province and he was given an urban seat in Baluchistan. But after using him, then Punjab killed him.
The prime minister Mohammadd Ali Chaudry was forced to resign on 8th September 1956. He had severe nervous breakdown after leaving office and proceeded to the United Kingdom for treatment. The next day , Iskander Mirza asked Huseyn Suhrwardy to become prime minister.
However, when Suhrwarday was leading demonstration against East Pakistan government and Ayub Khan was commanding there, at that time asked Suhrwarday if he was looking for a bullet.
On 17th October , 1957 he was dismissed by Iskander Mirza and was replaced by Chanrigar but after two months he was also dismissed and replaced by Feroz khan noon who was the personal friend of Iskandar Mirza. But he was also dismissed and Martial Law was imposed in October 1958.
Since from 1947 to 1958 , Pakistan had had eight Prime ministers. At last the government collapsed and was replaced by with the Army rule.
The military intervention in Politics lie in the absence of weakness of effective political institutions in the society. (Samuel Hundtington 1968).
At the end of 1950s , both president Iskander Mirza and commander in chief Ayub khan believed that Pakistan appeared ripe for a drastic change.
At that time the military relationship between Pakistan and United states of America continued. However, the US president Eisenhower himself was raising doubts about this relationship with a country like Pakistan.
While chairing a meeting of the NSC in January 1957 , he said that to have this relationship with Pakistan was perhaps the worst kind of a plan and decision. It was a worst error but we hopelessly involved in it.
When in West Pakistan politician started to show its maturity and wanted to break the one unit , Iskander mirza used his presidential power of section 193 to remove the government and imposed presidential rule for the first time on 21 March , 1957 in West Pakistan. Then in 1958 impose presidential rule in East Pakistan due to political crisis.
Due to the permanent interference of the Army , bureaucracy and Judiciary , by the middle of 1958 the whole country was in the grip of a serious economic crises. At that time Ayub khan was waiting for the opportunity to abrogate the constitution before the election in February 1959.
In this season of Political turmoil and discontent , in Baluchistan Khan of Kalat, chose to lower the flag of Pakistan and announced secession from Pakistan and began talking of a link with Iran. But Pakistan Army entered the defenceless state and removed the Khan .
Both Iskander Mirza and Ayub had been bemoaning of Affairs in Pakistan and nurturing the imposition of Military Rule
Once Iskandar Mirza said ” the country is being ruined by the politicians. The General state of the country is bad. After the general elections, I have my doubts , that the politicians will handle the situation. In fact Iskander Mirza was not interested in the election. And the main reason was that he had no chance for re-election as the president.
On the other hand Ayub khan was also very much against the politicians. He was calling them political dogs.
And when Ayub Khan told to US consul general Releigh Gibson that it was the responsibility of the army to protect the country and maintain good relationship with USA, Gibson told him that the Pakistan Army did not have trained men in governmental affairs , that’s why it will be a danger for the country.
After three months Ayub again said to Gibson that Pakistan Army would declare martial Law and take charge of the situation and there will be no danger from Politicians and general public.
By the end of February , Ayub told to the US first secretary Charles Withers that Pakistan army is a stabilizing force in Pakistan and he would not take any nonsense from the politicians.
Then Ayub explained the same scenario to the US Ambassador Mr.Hildreth.
Ayub Khan said , I felt that people were blaming the army for inaction while the country is going to the political dogs.
Ayub was telling the army , let me handle politics and you all keep out of it. Thus he wanted to use the army as his power base for a dictatorial position in the political field while still in the uniform. Of course it was dangerous thing for the army.
Major General Mohammad Latif in his conversation with US officials said , there was a decline in the morale of the Army.
By January 1957 , three high level Military officers were telling the US consul general Mr. Fisk in Lahore that they hold the country’s politicians in contempt. The same officers told Mr. Fisk that they would not employ such low characters Ministers even as clerk in their offices. They said further that the days of these ministers are numbered.
Soon after the transfer of the US Ambassador in 1957, the US Charge d, Affairs Gardiner warned the Secretary of state about the Mirz’s Plans and inclinations towards dictatorship.
The US was clearly against imposition of presidential rule in East Pakistan because it would hurt the US image that the US supports Punjabi tyranny and victimization of the province. US does not believe that dictatorship would solve any of Pakistan’s basic problems.
Ayub Khan and Iskander Mirza had there own plans.
In a meeting Ayub had indicated to Langley that only dictatorship will work in Pakistan.
Secratry of state Dulles told to langley to convey to Mirza that the US favoured democratic governments over authoritarian government.
Around the same time , Ayub was warning his staff officers of the dangers to the country from the politicians.
In the mean while when the Ayub Khan was on a trip to Istanbul , Turkey , Iskander Mirza continued to pepper the US Ambassador that democracy is failed in Pakistan and he wanted to take over.
The Ambassador Langley informed secretary of State on 4rth October, 1958 that Mirza confirmed to me , he would take over the Government of Pakistan probably within a week and simultaneously proclaim Martial Law. The constitution will be suspended and the election on February 15,1959 will not be held. Mirza had also given the names of the cabinet to him. Mirza Also told him that Ayub Khan will be the Chief Martial administrator.
Ayub reached Karachi on 5 th October, 1958 and met his commanders and then went to see Mirza.
Ayub khan had succeeded in ensuring that full martial law authority would reside with him. And thus Mirza was undercutting his own legal authority , having ceded power to the Army to run the country.
Chief Justice Muhammad Munir called Iskandar Mirzas dissolution of the 2nd Constituent Assembly and abrogation of 1956 constitution a legalized illegality.
Iskandar Mirza dissolved the parliament in 1958 and announced Martial law. Justice Munir and the supreme court were readily available to place a judicial stamp of approval.He relayed that which is otherwise not lawful is made lawful by necessity.
The constitution was abrogated, the Central and provincial governments were dismissed , the parliament and provincial Assemblies were dissolved, all political parties were abolished and thus Pakistan remained under martial law’s flag.
But once Mirza removed the government and installed Ayub Khan to run the country under Martial Law, then what was the position of Mirza?.
In the mean while Iskandar Mirza wanted to plan against Ayub Khan when he was on a visit of East Pakistan but it was too late then.
When Ayub Khan came to know on his return to Karachi. Ayub Khan confronting Mirza and told him, No monkeying and No tricks, be very careful, you are playing with fire.
And in one interview Ayub Khan said that if the president would not impose Maritial law , the Army would have done it alone any way.
The lines were being drawn between the president and the Chief Martial Law Administrator.
On 27th October 1958 in the morning the new cabinet took oath.
When at 10 PM General Burki , general Azam and General Sheikh arrived at the president’s House, they were told that the president is in his bedroom. Then they were told that they should come upstairs but they insisted that the president should come down. Mirza descended in the dressing gown and saw the three uniformed generals and brigadier Malik sher bahader standing behind them. Mirza sized up the situation and signed the letter of resignation.
Pakistan was now firmly under the military rule for the first time but unfortunately not for the last.
The next morning , Ayub khan assumed the office of the president.
When Mirze was removed , first he was sent to Quetta and then sent in the middle of the night to London.
The senior most civil servant , Aziz Ahmad was named deputy Chief Martial law administrator.
Supreme court gave legal cover to the coup.
And thus the Army , bureaucracy and judiciary came on the same page as was preplanned by the British Empire during the partition in 1947.
In nut shell the Chief Justice of Pakistan Supreme court Justice Munir’s decision in Dosso’s case (1958),that when revolution comes then the old system will be replaced with new system, prepared the constitutional stage for Ayub Khan to take over the government from Iskandar Mirza. And that’s why General Ayub khan’s take over on 27th October 1958 , took place just next day the court’s decision was announced.
After retirement Justice Munir was awarded a government job in Tokyo and then accepted a cabinet position under General Ayub Khan’s government.
When in 1965 Pakistan imposed war on India in Kashmir, by taking the war across the international boundary, India forced Pakistan to rethink the battle for Kashmir and concentrate instead on defending the Punjab with its key cities and roads.
When war started, Pakistan was in hot water, because the Pakistan army was not established to defeat the enemy but to conquer its own people. On the night of 19/20 September , Ayub and Bhutto made a secret dash to Beijing to meet premier Chou en Lei and Marshal chen , the Chinese defense minister. No fruitful results came out of the meeting.And Ayub came back tired and depressed.
By the mediation of former Soviet Union the cease fire took place on 23 of September ,1965 and both President Ayub and Lal Bahadur Shastri were invited to Tashkent , now the capital of Uzbekistan , for negotiations.
At the end of one round of talks , when Ayub said to Shastri, on the matter of Kashmir , please do something that would allow me to save face in my country , Shastri replied , Mr. President , I beg forgiveness that on this issue I can not be of any service to you .
The president of Pakistan was begging the Indians for face saving.
After the Tashkent Agreement, in Pakistan people realized that Ayub Khan and the military leadership had failed the nation militarily.
This war was also an alarming call for the East Pakistan that it was vulnerable.
The graph of Ayub was coming down. Bhutto who was calling Ayub khan daddy , broke with him. Bhutto was main culprit in 1965 war and then he started to use the Tashkent agreement for his political purposes and he got succeeded.
Ayub khan stepped down and instead of handing over the power to the speaker of Assembly he handed over Power to another Army general, General Yahya Khan Qazalbash.
On 25th March , 1969 he became chief Martial administrator and on 31 of March 1969 , he assumed the presidency.
Within month , Yahya was telling a gathering of his fellows in Abbotabad , that we must be prepared to rule this unfortunate country for the next 14 years or so. I simply can’t throw the country to the political wolves.
Ayub Khan had begun the practice of awarding land to army officers. Initially the army could get one plot but then the practice of multiple plots was to become common. And the military and civil bureaucracy were also awarded these plots.
To strengthen its hold over the civil society, the army had begun inducing young officers into the civil services. During Martial law 300 military officers , were occupying key administrative or Judicial positions.
In the meanwhile East Pakistanis felt that they had been used as a colony by their west Pakistanis rulers, army and establishment.
Geneal Yahya Khan Qazalbash , was also a Commander in chief of the Pakistan Army who imposed Martial law in March 1969, after receiving a written letter from General Ayub Khan , the president of Pakistan , to do your duty to run the country. He performed his duty promulgating another martial law next day.
Ayub himself violated the constitution by not handing power to the National assembly speaker according to constitution. After all he was an army dictator.
The judgement in Tamizuddin case of 1955 and Dosso’s case in 1958 had made the country a laughing stock. It converted the country into autocracy and eventually into military dictatorship.
Yahya Khan Qazalbash abrogated the 1962 constitution of Ayub Khan and introduced the Legal Frame work (LFO).
The commander in chief and president of Pakistan , General Yahya Khan Qazalbash regularly drank himself into a stupor.
Sardar Muhammad Chaudry , who was responsible for president Yahya’s security said . that when he first saw the President house , he was surprised to find that it was filled with prostitutes , pimps and drunks.
Once on one occasion , the Shahinshah of Iran, on a state visit , was getting late for his departure but the president would not come out of his bedroom. A very serious protocol problem had arisen but nobody could enter his bedroom.
General Ishaq , military secretary to the president , requested Rani , one of Yahya’s lover , to go in and bring him out. When she entered the room, she claims she found the most famous singer of the country performing oral sex on Yahya. Rani then helped the president dress and brought him out. Chaudry even considered Yahya’s activities a security risk.
That was the commander in chief of Pakistan army and President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
In a free and fair election in 1971 , the democratic right of the Bengali was not accepted by Punjab Army, Judiciary and establishment. They wanted to use for it a political person from another province not from Punjab. That’s why they chose Bhutto.
Sheikh Mujubur Reham put six point Movement for autonomy in 1966 in East Pakistan.
The 1971 Liberation War was the defining period of Bangladesh’s glorious history.
Dhaka University was the birthplace of an independent Bangladesh. The genocide of Bengali freedom fighter was started. But the brave Bengali defeated the Punjab dominated Army on the cast of 3 millions of Bengali massacre and four hundred thousands innocent women rape by Pakistan Army.
During the East Pakistan war in 1971 when Pakistan was losing the war as usual , Bhutto had been sent by Yahya Khan to America to help for cease fire. First Kissinger managed to keep Bhutto away from Washington at that point. And then called Bhutto and told him they will try for ceasefire.
On 8th December , 1971 Henry Kissinger was lecturing his president and Attorney General in the Oval office , that the Indian plan is now clear. They are going to move their forces from East Pakistan to West Pakistan. He further said that the West Pakistani instability posed a mortal threat to Iran. Baluchistan and N.W.F.P. will be liberated and go on their own.
Just three days after that conversation the then Ambassador Farland had sent a long telegram to the state Department , predicting the collapse of the Pakistan army in East Pakistan and likelihood that it would cease fighting in the West Pakistan too.
In white house on 16 December , 1971 when news of cease fire by Indian were heard, Kissinger in a telephone conversations told to Nixon , We have made it , Congratulations Mr. President , said kissinger , You have saved West Pakistan. Nixon had managed , bringing to power in place of Yahya , Zulfiqar Aki bhutto who Nixon considered ‘ a total demagogue’.
On December 16 , 1971 at the Race Course Ground , about 93000 soldiers along with generals , brigadier, colonels , majors , captains and lieutenants surrendered in humiliating atmosphere and handed over more than half Pakistan.
Jinnah’s Pakistan died on 16th December, 1971, with signing the surrender document in Dhaka.
On the left hand side image, the Pakistan army Generals are surrendering in 1971
Humiliating defeat of Pakistan Army in East Pakistan , now Bangladesh.
Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfiqar Alli Bhutto.
Bhutto came into power as civil chief Martial law administrator and president of Pakistan.
During the span of six years of Bhutto regime, the wounds of the Army were healed, so they were ready to grasp the power again.
The army that had facilitated Bhuto’s direct rise to the presidency dropped him in the end. Army began seeing Bhutto as a challenger rather than a saviour of Pakistan Army. The Army had gone angry with Mr. Bhutto when he became , the Martial law administrator, then president and then the prime minister and sent 22 generals home. The people’s party continuously suffered a lot since then. So the Army imposed Martial law on 5th July, 1977. They used Bhutto to get rid of East Pakistan and then killed him like Dr.Khan Sahib was first used for one unit and then killed.
When on 5th July 1977 General Zia ul haq pronounced martial law. Next day he met with the chief Justice of Pakistan Yaqoob Ali Khan at 11 am as the chief Martial law administrator. The registrar Mr. Sajjad Ali Shah left the two heads there and the door closed. They decided two main things. That the word abrogation and suspension of constitution must not be used but it would be said that the constitution is held in abeyance.
All it was a very calculated move to the higher judiciary in favour of military rule.
The day after promulgation of the Marital Law,General zia ul haq suspended all democratic institutions.
On September 1 , 1977 , he announced , “this country can be kept together by the armed forces and not by politicians”.
Army entered as usual in politics to interfere in civilian affairs for almost a decade. It distracted army from its professional duties, training , and operations. which made weaken the military institution.
General Zia didn’t have any other agenda but his agenda was merely to survive and retain power. For that he was using religion as a powerful tool. In the end , Islmisation was the legacy he left Pakistan.
In October 1979 he banned all parties. He was confident that he could rule the country with the help of his military officers and senior bureaucrats. Bureaucrats were running the ministries in the absence of civilian ministers.
The story of Pakistan is the story of ambitious and adventurous Generals denying the people their rights.
As the Pakistan army considers itself as Islamic Army then implications are profound. So if an Islamic revolution ever did get under way , what would the army do?
The first Pakistan Army chief to play on religious sentiment was General Zia ul-Haq. His Islamisation campaign affected Pakistani society as a whole.
In drug trafficking , Pakistan army has always been involved. Zia family was also dragged into the drug trade when a dogged investigator in Norway asked Pakistan FIA to arrest three men Tahir bhutt, Munawar Hassan and Hamid Hasnain. They were standing behind the drug traffic from Pakistan to Norway. When Police picked Hasnain They found in his briefcase personal bank record , including check books for President Zia, his wife and their daughter. Hasnain was virtually adopted son of Zia ul Haq and his wife and had easy access to their home. An Angry Begum Zia called from Egypt ( visiting Egypt) to ask why Hasnian had been detained.
During Bhutto regime, invasion of Baluchistan to kill the Baloch and pukhtuns , the Punjab Army wanted to show the people that Sindhi Prime Minister had done it. Bhutto was hanged on 4th April, 1979. He had been tortured in the jail and then hanged . Bhutto was mistreated and physically abused in the jail. And then Bhutto’s dead and tortured body was sent to nav dhero as a gift to Shindhis. Bhutto was used as a tool to get rid of the East Pakistan because Punjab did not want to share the power with any one else in Pakistan. However the population of Punjab was 25% of the population of Pakistan and Bengali were 54%. But as Punjabi claims that Pakistan has been created for them only.
General Zia ul Haq dies on 17th August 1988 in an air crash.
General beg invited Ishaq Khan GHQ to take oat of the president. Ishaq in trun made Beg the Chief of Army staff (COAS).
After making super-bureaucrat Ghaulam Ishaq Khan as a president , General beg suggested a cabinet meeting that would be attended by the three services chiefs. However, it was illegal . He didn’t have the right to do that. But for Army in Pakistan every thing is legal and right. For them there is no law. Any thing they do is Law.
General Miraz Aslam brg with the connivance of a bureaucrat turn president Ghulam Ishaq khan , played an active political role. In 1990 , 1993 and 1996 the army influenced and fully supported the presidential decisions to dismiss the sitting civilian governments by 8th constitutional amendment. That’s why Pakistan army is not only a military machine but a political organization.
The trouble with military rule is that every colonel, or general is soon full of ambition.
After 11 years of dictatorship Pakistan had to re-learn the way of democracy, however
the class monitors were the army and bureaucracy any way.
Election took place, Peoples party won the election but the leader of the party Benzir Bhutto was given the government conditionally, that Ishaq Khan will be the president, Sahibzada Ayub khan will be the foreign minister, no change in Afghanistan policy , no change in nuclear policy , no change in defence policy no interference in the administrative set-up of the civil services. and the General Zia’s family will not be harassed.
This meeting took place between Mirza Aslam Beg and Benzir Bhutto and Ishaq khan was not there.So without accepting the dictation of Army , she couldn’t be the prime minister of Pakistan.
After that Benazir became the prime minister of Pakistan on December 2, 1988. Banazir Bhutto recalls that she received reports that General Hamid Gul and ISI were behind the attempts to have her removed and perhaps even an abortive attempt to assassinate her at Lahore airport.
Bhutto couldn’t control the hostile Punjab government, Punjab dominated Pakistan army chief , ISI chief and the President and that’s why Buhtto was unable to establish her writ.
ISI had become a pervasive force in Pakistan politics.
At the July 1990 meeting of Beg with his corps commanders , the army high command decided that the Bhutto government was no longer acceptable . And thus on 6th August the bureaucrat turned president Ghulam Ishak Khan on the directions of Army dismissed the Bhutto’s government. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was selected as the care taker prime minister.
General beg , was determined to help Bhutto’s main rival a Punjabi Nawaz Sharif of the Muslim league and his IJI colleague to win the election. IJI was fully supported by Pakistan Army financially too. Naw sharif had been given 3.5 millions rupees and to the others too .
In November 1990 Nawas sharif swept into Power.
On 28th January 1991 , US invaded Kuwait to liberate the Kuwait. When Kuwait was liberated the rift between the Nawaz shrif and Beg widened.
After General Beg, General Asif Nawaz became the chief of the Army staff.
General Asif Nawas once said to the politicians , you gentlemen from top to bottom , are immature and can not run the government.
Nawaz sharif described the Asif Nawaz as a headstrong individual , who did not consider Prime minister as the prime minister. it means he showed no respect to the civilian head of the government. Sharif also states that general Nawaz was having meetings with the politicians and complaining that the government was not operating well.
Nawaz sharif believed that as a prime minister he had the right to appoint anyone to any position in the Army but he made no such move during Asif Nawaz’s tenure and even later during the Musharaf period.
By the summer 1992, the distance between Nawaz sharif and the chief of army staff Asif Nawaz had widened. But Asif Nawaz suffered heart attack and on 8 January , 1993 he died.
Without the advice of Nawaz sharif , President appointed Gen.Abudul Waheed kakar as the chief of Army staff. Nawaz Sharif complained that Ishaq had not consulted him in the selection of the new army chief. The president and the prime minister began avoiding each other , even at social functions that both attended.
As a result Nawaz sharif went on air on 17th April at 8:15 pm and delivered a hard hitting speech , lashing out at Ishaq Khan and accusing him at attempts to subvert the political system.
The day after Nawaz Sharif’s speech , Ishaq khan went on air to announce that he was dismissing the government and appointed another Politician , Balkh Sher Mazarii from Dera Ghazi Khan.
The Chief of Army staff , General Waheed kakar and corps commanders had discussed the issue and decided that both Ishaq khan and prime minister had to go to clear the decks.
Waheed Kakar accompanied by General Ghulam Mohammad the Corps commander of 10 corps Rawalpindi and DG ISI Ashraf Qazi went to meet Nawaz sharif to tell him that you and President both will have to resign.
As they left the the meeting , Nawaz Sahrif trotted up to General Qazi and held him back, saying to him in Punjabi, Make sure you don’t forget to take care of us. these two Pathans Ishaq khan and General waheed kakart may gang up on us.
Thus both the President and Nawaz Sharif agreed to resign on 18th July 1993.
And the army had brokered yet another change of the government.
Moeen Quereshi , a senior Pakistani official at the world bank was appointed as the prime minister.
On 24 and 27 October 1993 , election took place and Pakistan peoples party won the election by narrow margin.
Benazir became the prime minister and she appointed her own party man Farooq Laghari as the president . But Benazir had forgotten that he was former Bureaucrat.
The tenure of General Waheed karkar expired and General kiramat became the COAS. According to General Kiramat that his selection was primarily based on Legharis and Waheeds preferences and that Bhutto had no real role in this.
The differences began growing between Leghari and Bhutto on the corruption issues. As a result Farooq laghari dismissed Bhutto’s government on 5th November, 1996.
The election on 3 February 1997 allowed Nawaz sharif to come back into power with a clear majority.
But when differences between the president Laghari and Prime minister Nawaz sharif were growing , Laghari decided to resign and told it to Chief of Army staff General kiramat. But when General kiramat was leaving the president , he handed over a note to Brigadier Ghazanfar who was the secretary of the president . He had written in the note to President , if you resign then I am also resigning tomorrow.. President Laghari called General Kiramat that if he will resigned then Sharif would have total power and it would be like giving a monkey a razor.
Once again General Kiramat and DG ISI came to the president not to resign. Kiramat said that Sharif and company would ruin the country but he resigned on December 2 , 1997.
Sharif appointed Tariq Tarar as the rubber -stamp president.
Due to difference between the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the chief of Army staff on the issue of Natiaonl Security Council, General Kiramat resigned. The Army was stunned by the resignation of General Karamat.
On 7th October, 1998 , Sharif chose Musharaf to be the new army chief .
Nawaz Sharif was trying to establish good working relationship with India. The prime minister of India Attal Behari Vajpayee of the BJP had visited Lahore and issued a joint declaration with the Sharif on 21st February 1999 , viewing to work toward peace and stability between their countries.
But the peace with India is not in the interest of Pakistan Army . The tension between India and Pakistan is the money pocket for Pakistan Army. If there will be peace , then there will no such a big Army required. Then how the Army would be enjoying their luxurious lives. So Pakistan Army infiltrated in Kargil.
First India thought that they were the militants but by 17 th May 1999 , India found that Pakistan army had occupied the heights.
On 17th May 1999 Nawaz Sharif was given the briefing about Kargil by the Army Generals.
India deployed forces to counter the attack. They even blocked Karachi with their Navy.
With increasing Indian Military pressure the relationship between sharif and Musharaf strained because in the briefing Nawas Sharif was misguided. He was told that the Mujahideen are doing all the actions, not Pakistan Army .
But when India retaliated , the situation became so bad on the ground that Army chief Musharraf told Nawaz Sharif to pay the America a visit. Musharraf told Sharif , Sir you have to go to Washington to pull President Clinton into it.
Because as in 1965 war , Pakistan army did not think that India will cross the international border but when they found that India is ready to do it again , then they were in hot water, because Pakistan army knew itself very well that it is not the army to fight war with the enemy but only to conquer and loot its own people and rule them for more than 35 years.
When Nawaz sharif arrived in Washington after inviting himself. he was received at the air port, by the Saudi Ambassador Bandar bin Sultan.
The US team saw that Sharif was extremely nervous and anxious, carrying a great burden.
Nawas sharif was worried about the national conflict between India and Pakistan, He damn cared about the kargil. He knew how brave Pakistan army was. He knew about the bravery of Pakistan Army in 1947 , 1965 and specially in 1971 when they handed over more than half of the country to the enemy.
When Nawas Sharif met with President Clinton, he said I am in a box , I need your help. The president Clinton replied , you have put me in the box, there is no simple way out.
Sharif had brought his family too in such an alarming situation, May be he did not want to go back if his trip would not be successful.
By the mediation of America, Pakistan retreated.
Even the Army was main culprit in that conflict but Nawaz Sharif was over thrown and Musharraf came into power. As usual Judiciary has always been ready to legalize each and every step of the military dictator, it did here the same.
When Bhutto was over thrown and in a rigged judiciary trial he was convicted , he was hanged but when Nawaz Sharif was convicted, he was sent to Saudi Arabia where he was living like a king.But why this discrimination because Nawaz sharif was Punjabi and Bhutto was sindhi and Pakistan is Punjab and Punjab is Pakistan.
After 9/11 when Musharraf was asked by America to support war against terror , Secretary of state Powell told the national security council that Musharraf and his top military commanders had agreed to all seven demands in no time.
According to Hilary Clinton , since 2001 US gave 25 billions dollars to Pakistan. Which were going direct to Army. But a part of it, were spent on Taliban and Alqaeda to fight against the US and NATO army in Afghanistan. Thus Pakistan was playing double cross game with US and its allies.
Pakistan is breeding ground for conspiracy theories.
Basically Pakistan Army has three generations of officers.:
First there was the British Generation. When Pakistan’s Army was established its men were all products of British India Army. The British had selected most of them because they came from Loyal , westernised families and for the most part they did not hold strong religious views.
But After second world war Britain was in no position to provide the kind of aid that Pakistan Army so badly needed. Ayub Khan instead looked to the United states for support and thereby spawned the second , American generation of Pakistan officers. Many Pakistan Military personnel officers went to US for training and their US counterparts came to live in Pakistan.But due to the Ayub Martial Law , the army got involved directly in the Civil institutions , which destroyed their professionalism. They had not only indulged in large scale acquisition of land , house and other commercial activities but also adopted highly immoral and licentious way of life which seriously affected their professional capabilities.
Pakistan army is the top most morally corrupt army. In East Pakistan General Niazi having relations with two prostitutes who were supplying him women even to his office. And similarly , taking example of him his several junior officers under his command were involved with bad reputed women.
After 1971 defeat , the army has been forced to recruit a different kind of Soldier. The shortage of Jobs in the civilian sector and the diminished prestige of the army meant that a military career became less attractive to the elite and more attractive to people from lower middle class of urban families. Consequently , the army became more representative of Pakistan society as a whole. And thus another generations took place called Zia Generation.
As one retired officer has put it in the way ” These young men were basically conservative in there views , hostile to western ideas and far more receptive to religious ideas.
All the time , after taking over , the first task of any military ruler is to address the nation on radio and television. It has happened in Pakistan for four times. And in all four times they delivered a carbon-copy speeches;
General.Ayub Khan said 8th October 1958 ” This is a drastic and extreme step taken with great reluctance but with the deepest conviction that there was no alternative to it except the disintegration and complete ruination of the country”.
The second general , General Yahya khan Qazalbash said on 26 the March 1969.
The armed forces could not remain idle spectators of this state of near anarchy. They have to do their duty and save the country from utter disaster.
The third general , General Zia ul Haq said on 5 th July 1977″
I was obliged to step in to fill the vacuum created the political leaders.
But the four address of these Generals have other passages common:
General Ayub Khan pledged: Our ultimate aim is to restore democracy.
His succssor General Yahya khan insisted: I have no ambition other than to establish a constitutional government.
General Zia ul Haq said , my sole aim is to organise free and fair election.
and finally General Mushara said, Pakistan Army will pave the way for true democracy to flourish in the country.
But non of these four traitors did what they promised. They always just wanted to make the people fools to govern them for how long they want. Their main objective has always been hang on to power. That’s why Pakistan have been ruled by the military for a little over half the country’s existence. Even in the time of civilian rule , the military has interfered in foreign and domestic polices and intervened in the political process.
Pakistan has suffered four Martial laws in 1958 , 1969, 1977 and 1999. And these dictators deemed these coups to be in the interest of the state and for the welfare of the people. And thus military rulers have been the final arbiters of Pakistan’s destiny.
After Musharraf, General Pervez kayani became the chief of army staff who was deciding all the civil government matters. During the long March of Nawaz sharif General kiyani mediated between sharif and Asif Zardar for compromise.
Kiyani was awarded full second term as extension just to leave the government to stay in power.
In the 2013 rigged election again Newas sharif came into power but as the NATO and US forces will be leaving completely in 2016 , Pakistan is preparing for a dirty game in Afghanistan as before. For this purpose a Punjabi prime minister was must. Then he chose a Punjabi chief of Army staff Raheel Sharif after Kayani.
As usual he has full support of Army , Judiciary and establishment. In a democratic government , the political parties were compelled to approve the military courts . As usual the supreme court of Pakistan also approved it. This is the country of 21st Century. When army wants something, no civil government can disapprove its demands. Can the civilized world expect some thing good in future from the country led by only the army. In other countries , they have army but in the case of Pakistan , army has country.
Army has always been staging the ceremonial events to impress the public.
As a result by exploiting throughout the civilian society ,Pakistan’s army enjoys a better reputation than it deserves. However, both on the field of battle and in periods of Military rule, its record is terribly shameful.
As Pakistan is on the brink of failure , Pakistan army does not consider itself responsible for it at all. However, they have been looting the country . No one can ask them about it , because they are being backed by Punjab. And with the help of Punjab dominated Army , establishment and judiciary , Punjab has made the remaining three provinces as their hostages.
That’s why all the time the Punjab province , Punjab Army , establishment and judiciary are on the same page to exploit the Pukhtuns , Baloch and Sindhies.
Pakistan Army’s performance has been more damaging to Pakistan in times of civilian rather than the military rule , because no civilian government has been able to operate free of army interference.
Army always denouncing politicians as corrupt , self-interested and incompetent. By doing so the civilian institutions have become tarnished, and the army retains the glitter.
Non of Pakistan’s military rulers have left office in happy circumstances.
Before he stepped down, Ayub Khan admitted to a group of ministers, frankly speaking I have failed. I must admit that clearly. He was forced out of office due to the public uprising.He resigned and handed over the country to another dictator General Agha yahya khan Qazalbash who was forced out of office when East Pakistan had become Bangladesh.
Zia ul Haq died in an air crash. Musharaf resigned forcibly due to the fear of impeachment.
The Judiciary always supported the army coup in Pakistan under the doctrine of necessity.
The Federal and provincial assemblies are just the debating forums.
As a result the institution of Judiciary in Pakistan has already completely broken down.
The political institution couldn’t flourish due to the continuous interference of the army , bureaucracy and Judiciary which made the political institutions very weak. Due to Army interference the political elites were so weak and divided that they couldn’t sustain the principal of civil supremacy over the military. Due to this weakness of the politicians , Army leadership became more involved in the political matters, autonomous in its decision making and resentful of any civil interference in its matters.
When Martial law is supper imposed over the civilian government , civilian government ceases functioning . When Martial law is lifted , the civilian functionaries remain ineffective. Their growth is stunted. but whatever the law, civil or military , the poor always the victims of oppression.
In fact , the piece of land in the Name of Pakistan was separated from the Indian subcontinent for exclusive rule and malicious usage by Generals backed by bureaucracy and Judiciary .
Pakistani Military rulers are continuously betraying the people in the name of Islam and Pakistan.
The role of Punjab military and bureaucratic oligarchy in Pakistan destroyed the Pukhtuns, Baloch, Bengali and Sindhi culturally , linguistically and historically in the name of Islam and Pakistan.
The Pukhtuns don’t want to be a part of the occupying ,unconstitutional and fake state of Pakistan. They want to get rid of Pakistan and annex their motherland Afghanistan. The Baloch are struggling for their independence , likewise Sindhi brothers for Sindhu desh.
Pakistan is not the country where the patriotic Pukhutns, Baloch and Sindhies would like to live or die.
The Higher echelons of Judiciary , who were supposed to protect the constitution and democratic institutions always stood up to help the Army Generals and upheld their unconstitutional acts.
Hazrat Ali Bin Abu Talib , the fouth Caliph had told that if the judicial system goes corrupt somewhere and justice becomes unapproachable for the public , that society is bound to perish.
On 25th July 2003 , two civil judges and a magistrate were killed by prisoners of the Sialkot District Jail while they were on an official visit to the jail premises, however they were accompanied by a heavy contingent of the local police.
The civil dictators and monarchs rule the country on turn by turn basis, through family successions but fooling and cheating their people with loud slogans and high banner of democracy.
If the British Empire was so much interested in Pakistan in the name of Islam then why they invaded an Islamic country Afghanistan two times, why they destroyed the ottoman Caliphate , and why they divided the Arab Muslim world into pieces in 1919. But the reality was completely different. The British didn’t want an Islamic state of Pakistan but just a place from where they could use Pakistan against the expansionist communist theory of former USSR and for the protection of their interest in oil in the Middle East. But for their own interest the Bengali , Pukhtun, Baloch and Sindi were thrown into the sea of Blood.
In other countries decisions about movements of the army for wars are invariably taken in Parliaments and Civil Secretariats.
Once Winston Churchil said that , War is too serious a matter to be left with the Generals.
But once Yousuf Raza Gillan , the ex – prime minister of Pakistan said to General Pervez Kiyani ex-chief of army staff, about the operation of North Waziristan, Swat and Malakand but Kiyani said to him leave it on us. Don’t interfere in this matter.
Army General takes over the country , promises with the nation in telecast to hold general elections within 90 days but continues to rule for eleven years in the name of Islam and Pakistan. The Judiciary legalized it and the bureaucracy run the government on the directions of the Army.
As a result the legal system does not work. The police are not effective. The courts are corrupt and incompetent. There is simply no justice. If you want to win any case , then hire the judge.
Justice Munir in Molvi Tamizuddin Khan’s case, declared that the Assembly was not a sovereign body and thus destroyed Pakistan’s constitutional basis. but he did not indicate where sovereignty resided.
It also followed from court’s decision on sovereignty that the Assembly could be dissolved by the order of Governor general for political purposes. On 24th October, 1954 the governor general of Pakistan , Ghulam Mohammad dissolved the constituent Assembly and chief Justice Munir of the Supreme court legalized the dissolution of the Ist Constituent Assembly.
The judgement in Tamizuddin case of 1955 and Dosso’s case in 1958 had made the country a laughing stock. It converted the country into autocracy and eventually into military dictatorship.
Pakistan Army has always dominant role in the politics of Pakistan. The coercive authority is seen to reside clearly with the military and civil bureaucracy, and the politicians seldom have been able to control the military and bureaucracy.
Pakistan Army , bureaucracy and judiciary deliberately managed to weaken the educational institutions to keep the people ignorant what they have been doing and how they have been looting the country on the name of Islam and Pakistan.
The armed forces always remain a key element in Pakistan politics. They are power full and well entrenched to do that.
The Pakistan Army today reflects Pakistani society more than at any time in the history.
The political parties are weak , because these are either tied to individuals or family dynasties. Even these political leaders also invite army to political affairs but then they lament the active role of of the army. OR the majority of the political leaders are the product of the Army dictators in Pakistan.
Pakistan Army remains a key player on the political scene and will not easily relinquish its hold on power.
On August 14, 1947 , Pakistan came into being as moth – eaten political entity. Prime minister Liaqat Ali also held the defence portfolio, but had to rely extensively on his secretary , Iskandar mirza , a Sandhurst-trained ex army man.
Due to Pakistan frequent military takeovers, abrogation of constitutions , adhoc legislation etc made Pakistan unstable , in state of permanent crisis and on the brink of disintegration.
Pakistan has been under the military dictatorship for more than half of its history on the name of Islam and Pakistan , while the military and bureaucracy have exercised indirect political influence the rest of the time.
That’s why Islam was just a tool to use for their interest to subjugate the other nationalities by Punjabi. In Pakistan the national cohesion is weak and the socio economic formations are not well defined. So Ideology serves to hide the underlying realities of the state system. Thus in Pakistan Islam has become the foundation of state legitimacy.
There are nine (9) Corps headquarters of Army . Where 6 are in Punjab, one in Karachi, one in Qutta and one in Peshawar. In Punjab are : Mangla, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi , Gujranwala and Bahawalpur.
Pakistan Army has always been interested in making money than in defending the state. The people describe the military as parasitical , insisting that it grabs the best land , both agricultural and commercial for its senior officers, monopolises large area of country’s economy and seizes the most lucrative state contracts for companies that it runs.
The army rulers live in luxury while the masses live in squalor.
People argue that the ills that beset Pakistan are the result of a corrupt and predatory Army.
Militant extremism deliberately has grown drastically over the last decades in the Pukhtun’s and Baloch areas under the cover of Pakistan intelligence organization ISI, because Pakistan uses them for their proxy wars in Afghanistan , Kashmir and India. Pakistan has always been consistently in contact with the religious leaders of Afghanistan to use them for their dirty game in Afghanistan.
Pakistan Army and ISI have always been sponsoring, financing , training and supplying weapons to the jihadies for its proxy wars in Afghanistan,Kashmir and India. And also to crush the Pukhtun and Baloch nationalist movements .
Though , the relationship between the Jihadis and Pakistan army was established in 1947 war with India but in 1980s and 1990s this relationship with various Islamic group or jihadis became more strong. Pakistani soldiers became used to fighting alongside the Mujahideen in Afghanistan , Indian administered Kashmir and Kargil. The same scenario was in 1965 war with India.
As the relationship between the Army and militant organisations grew closer , mutual trust was established to the point that in the 1990 , Pakistan Army used the militants in to carry out limited operations on the line of control in Kashmir.
After 9/11 when Al Qaeda came on the surface, then Pakistan got involved in the international Jihad. And Khalid sheikh who had organized the 9/11 plots, was found in a safe house in Rawalpindi provided by a serving military officer, Major Adil Maqbool.
The militant groups and the army draw their recruits from the same pool of young men, many of whom hold deep resentments against the west. That’s why many of the soldiers simply refused in the Swat valley and Waziristan in 2007 to fight against the militants , whom they considered admirable, selfless and pious defenders of Islam.
What would the Pakistan army do if there was a serious attempt to mount an Islamic revolution?
Clearly , some in the army would support such a movement.
But we must also know that throughout the society of Pakistan including Army has been radicalized , that’s why if a small number of officers and soldiers will support such movement , they will be backed by street already radicalized power. And the nuclear arsenals are in the control of Army. But in case of Islamic revolution , if these nuclear Arsenal will come in the hands of these fundamentalists and militants, then? The international community must think about it very seriously.
Pakistan’s first politicians made military expenditure their top priority. Between 1947 and 1959 up to 73 per cent of Pakistan’s total government spending was devoted to defence. In 1960s an average of 48.8 per cent and so on.
In spite of these expenses , in the wars 1947 , 1965 , 1977 and 1999 , the Pakistan Army has consistently failed to achieve its military objectives.
Punjab dominated Pakistan army had started the war in 1971 in East Pakistan not to win but just to get rid of East Pakistan and maintain the hegemony of Punjab on Pukhtuns, Baloch and Sindhies. That’s why all the time Pakistan Army , military and civil establishment , Judiciary and Punjabi as a whole , are on the same page .
And the Pukhtuns, Baloch and Sindhies are the hostages of Punjab.
Another consistent weakness in Pakistani strategy has been the Pakistan high command’s heavy reliance on the Jihadies out side the formal military structure. That’s why in 1965 General Ayub Khan hoped to start Gibraltar Operation in which armed militants would cross into Indian administered Kashmir and instigate a great revolt. Pakistan has always been supporting the insurgency of these militants in Afghanistan ,Kashmir and India. As a result the back lash has now started.
Pakistan Army has always been involved in Politics rather than to get involved in its professional job. Pakistan Army has repeatedly shown a great willingness to grasp power than to give it up. None of the four military rulers gave up power voluntarily.
Since the creation of Pakistan due to Punjab dominated Army, bureaucracy and judiciary , Punjab has made the Pukhtuns, Baloch , sindhi and Bengali as its hostages. But in 1971 , the Brave Bengali got freedom from Pakistan on the cost of the massacre of 3 million Bengali and rape of four hundred thousands women by Pakistan army and the remaining three nationalities , the Pukhtuns, the Baloch and the Sindhi are on the way of independence from the terrorist, occupying, fundamentalist and extremist state of Pakistan.
When there was first and free election in 1971 in Pakistan, India had four elections. But the 1971 elections was also not accepted by the Punab dominated army and Punjabis. They used Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto for it to get rid of the East Pakistan and then killed him through a rigged judiciary trail. because Punjab didn’t want to share the power to any of other nationality in Pakistan. However, the population of Punjab was 25% and Bengali were 54% of the whole populations of Pakistan but in Army, judiciary and bureaucracy , Punjabi were more than 80%.
The Mullah- military alliance also played a crucial role to infiltrate in Afghanistan, Kashmir and in India. Throughout the society of Pakistan has become radicalized. And during Zai ul haq , Pakistan Army is also radicalized. Thats’ why the nuclear arsenals are more vulnerable than ever.
Since the creations of Pakistan , the army has had a large degree of influence. The civilian leaders have always been nervous that they could be over thrown out of office.
Pakistan Army and establishment have never and will never tolerate civilian interference in Kashmir problem, weapons procurement , foreign policy issues , internal military personnel decisions, cut in defence expenditure and any moves to curtail the perks associated with high military office.
In fact the military considers any issue of strategic national importance to be within its domain.
So Army has a country which is called not Pakistan but Punjabistan.
Mashal Khan Takkar
Editor in Chief
THE VOICE TIMES