Afghanistan in the glimpse of Modern history
Afghanistan has always been invaded by foreign armies since the beginning of history. Its location- in the middle of Asia,with Iran , Russia , China and the Indian continent as neighbors- has placed it at the center of world politics for centuries , often to the damage of its people.
Persians, Greeks , Arabs, Mongols , have marched through Afghanistan, and Alexander the Great conquered the country on his way to India. Though, till the war in Afghanistan , Alexander was calling himself son of God but when he and his Generals got seriously injured during the war between him and and Pashtun Tribes, during the pains he said no, I am also ordinary human being like others. That’s why once he said, that Afghanistan “is easy to march into but hard to march out of”.
Alexander wrote a letter to his mother,while in fight with pakhtuns in arachosia (now kandahar) and said,
“I am involved in the land of leonine (lion-like) and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldiers.You have brought only one son into the world ,but every one in this land can be called an Alexander”.
( “Afghan , Pukhtun ,Pathans, Pathan, or Pushtun are the same)
During the great game Afghanistan was first the fault line between Russia and the British Empires and after the end of the British Raj in India , at the fault line between Russia and the United States of America.
The Russians, and British referred to their rivalry in Afghanistan as the Great Game.
Moscow , London , and Calcutta ( the capital of the British Empire in India until 1911) were convinced that Russia and Britain were colliding great powers in Afghanistan and Persia and that the winner of the collision would tip the global balance of Power.
The Russians were intent on taking control of both Constantinople and Kabul.
March of London’s paranoia about Russian ambitions in Afghanistan was excessive, but it was real enough to lead Britain to go to war three times to keep Afghanistan from being absorbed by Russia. But the consequences of these wars for both the Afghanistan and Britain were terrible.
At that time there were four main centers of Afghanistan; Kabul, Peshawar , Kandahar and Quetta, but Peshawar was the economic backbone of Afghanistan. So the British decided to break the backbone of Afghanistan and captured the Afghan territory till to Indus Riverin in 1849. Peshawar had been the winter Capital of Afghanistan.
Then the British decided to use their famous formula “DIVIDE AND RULE”. The British Empire by force imposed the line of hatred , “Durand line” on Afghanistan in 1893, to divide the Pukhtuns tribes and weaken their power. However, the Durand line has never been recognized by any Afghan government including Pakistan puppet Taliban government , as an international border.
Due to the treaty of Gandamak, the government of India (British Raj) gained control of Afghan foreign policy.
But in the result of 1919 short war between Afghanistan and British India , on August 19 , 1919 Afghanistan under the leadership of Amanuallah Khan got its complete independence, leaving Durand line agreement unsettled and kept it for future negotiation.
Afghanistan became the first country in the world to recognize the new communist government in Moscow.
But the British could never forgive Amanulah Khan for his this act of war against the British Empire to get Independence and by the British conspiracy he was replaced forcibly by the “Bacha saqa”.
But in 1929 by the help of Pukhtun Tribles he was thrown away and Nadir Shah became the King of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan Modern Political history can be said to have begun on November 8 , 1933, with the assassination of King Nadir Shah by a Hazara student radical.
The king was succeeded by his 19-years-old son, Mohammad Zahir, who would rule the country for the next 40 years.
Zahir, who was educated in France and Afghanistan , was content to leave effective power in the hands of two of his uncles, both of whom acted as Prime Minister. Hashim was prime minister until 1946, followed by Mahmoud until 1953.
Zahir’s cousin Mohammad Daoud Khan then acted as Prime minister until 1963.
Diplomatic contacts with the United States began in 1922, when an Afghan ambassador came to Washington to present his credentials to president Warren Harding, but a permanent US envoy was not posted to Kabul until 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese. Washington was isolationist and uninterested in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan spent the first three decades of the cold war as a butter between the two hostile superpowers.
The United States helped fund a large agriculture production project in the Helmand River but the United States would not sell arms or provide military assistance to Afghanistan because of the emerging US alliance with Pakistan. When the Afghans asked for military aid from President Harry Truman in 1948 , Secretary of State George Marshall dismissed the request by asking “ Who is the enemy” . But the irony was that Pakistan was not asked “who is the enemy”.
Pakistan had been and have been given the military on the condition that Pakistan will not use it against India, then against whom? Pakistan has always been using US and UK military and financial aid to crush the Pashtus and Baloch and also due to its territorial dispute, to destabilize and destroy Afghanistan.
When the British Raj in India was partitioned in 1947 , the Islamic state of Pakistan inherited the Durand line , a border with Afghanistan. The Afghan government had never accepted the legitimacy of the Durand line , which it correctly argued had been imposed on the Afghans by force of arms by the British imperialist power. Afghanistan pressed the British to return to Afghan sovereignty disputed Pashtun and Balochi-inhabited portions of what was to become Pakistan.
The Afghan claim would have cost Pakistan half of its territory and provided Afghanistan with access .
to the sea.
No Afghan government has ever recoginzed the Drand line as the border of Afghanistan, and successive Afghan governments have always been supporting the pukthuns and balochi independence.
Instead of building a relationship with Kabul, Washington developed a close relationship with Pakistan which sought US support against both Afghanistan and India.
United State became Pakistan’s major source of weapons in the 1950s and in contrast Kabul was told in 1954 that the United States would not provide arms to Afghanistan until it settled Pashtunistan dispute with Pakistan.
The Soviets saw and eagerly exploited the opening in Afghanistan. If the United states tilted toward Pakistan , Russia would tilt toward Afghanistan, it was natural.
When Pakistan Joined SEATO and CENTO , the Afghans turned to Soviets for arms. And In 1956 Kabul signed a deal with Soviets to buy T-34 tanks and MG-17 jet fighters. Soviet training for the Afghan army and air force began in earnest. By 1973 a quarter to a third of all Afghan officers had been trained in the USSR. Nikita Khrushchev , leader of the communist party, visited Kabul in 1955 and endorsed Afghan claim to Pashtunistan.
The Soviets built the 1.7 miles-long , 11, 500 feet high Salang Pass tunnel , providing an all-weahtere road from the Soviet border to Kabul. Russian aid built the air base in Bagram.
US aid built roads connecting Afghanistan to Pakistan and Iran and a major air field at Kandahar.
In 1959 President Eisenhower became the first US president to visit Kabul.
By pursuing its policy of “ without sides” in the cold war, Daoud’s government secured 80% of its development budget from the two superpowers. Daoud’s major investment was in education and women rights. Schools were opened, and by the Saur Revolution more than 1 million Afghan students were in shcools-of a population of 15 million- and many of them were girls.
In August 1959 , on the fortieth anniversary of Afghan independence from British control of its foreign policy , Daud Kha ordered the wives and daughters of the royal family and prominent government officials to appear in public without veils, a shocking move in Afghanistan’s conservative society that denounced by many in the Islamic clergy(ulama). In addition , women were admitted to Kabul University as students and even as stewardesses on the national airline , Ariana Airways .
In 1961 Daoud instigated a crisis with Pakistan over the Pashtunistan issue, sending a combined army and tribal force across the border into Pakistan territory. Pakistan’s military dictator , Field Marshal Ayub Khan , shut Pakistan’s consulates in Afghanistan. US supplied Pakistani F-86 Sabre jets bombed Afghan Positions in Konar Province, and Ayub Khan shut the border to trade and cross-boder tribal migration. The closing of the border hurt Afghanistan, a landlocked country, dependent on trade through Karachi , much more than it hurt Pakistan, and it went on for 18 months. Daud Khan was disgraced and resigned in March 1963.
President John F. Kennedy urged Ayub Khan to avoid further conflict with Kabul when he hosted him for a state dinner at Mount Vernon, George Washington’s home in Alexandria , Virginia.
After the Shah of Iran hosted hosted a tripartite meeting with U.S. Support in Tehran, Khan agreed to reopen the border. King Zahir ceased disseminating anti-Pakistan propaganda and traveled to Washington to meet with Kennedy in September, 1963 , the first visit by an Afghan head of state to the United States.
In the 1960s King Zahir shah allowed political parties to begin to operate; while they were tolerated , they were not , strictly speaking , legal. In January 1965 th e PDPA was formed , led by a Khalqi, Nur Mohammad Taraki. The party was funded by the Soviet Communist Party and followed the Soviet line. Within two years the Party split into the two factions that became it hallmark, the Khalq , led by Taraki, and the Purcham , led by Babrak Karmal. There was also a small Maoist , pro-Chinese faction. Islamic political parties also emerged in the 1960s , led by future Mujahed leaders Ahmad Shah Massoud and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. The communist factions emphasized recruiting new party members among the officer corps and students , especially at Kabul University.
Mohammad Daud Khan carefully planned a comeback , securing the support of Pashtunistan nationalists , students and reformers and the parcham faction of the PDPA, among others.
On July 17, 1973, while the king was in Europe,Daud staged a coup and proclaimed the end of the monarchy and the creation of the Republic of Afghanistan. The Parcham joined Daoud’s government and several members were elected to parliament.
The Khalq stayed out of the government , rediculating their rival as “ royal communists”. King Zahir shah went into exile in Rome, where his bills and expenses initially were paid by President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, the Shah of Iran and the king of Saudi Arabia. After Sadat’s assassination and the fall of the Shah , king Fahad paid the bills.
Moscow welcomed the coup, of which it had advance knowledge because many of the officers who took part were Soviet trained and the PDPA was involved . Daoud visited Moscow in 1974, where he was given debt relief and a new half – billion dollars aid program. He also promised to prevent any Western economic activity in northern Afghanistan along the Russian border, and he again revived the pashtunistan issue, offering Pashtun and Baloch rebels sancturay and safe haven in Afghanistan.
But Daoud did not want to become a Soviet puppet, so he turned to Iran for help. The Shah of Iran , who was beginning to enjoy a surge of oil wealth after the 1973 Arab-Israel war, promised Daud Khan a ten-years, $ 2 billion aid package. The Shah even suggested unification of Afghanistan and Iran under his imperial crown. Iran also brokered a detente with Pakistan. Daoud and Pakistan’s president , Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto , traded official state visits in 1976.
But on the other hand , Pakistan was planning to destroy Afghanistan. A journalist , Farhad Ali Khawar from Khyber Pukhtunkhwa , interviewd General Naseerullah Babar. He told Farhad that Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto had invided him when he was the primse minister of Pakistan that 1993 is around the corner, because the Durand line agreement is getting to expire after 100 years. So Afghanistan must be burnt. Then Naseeruall babar told to Farhad that we trained Afghan religious dissidents , like Gulbudin Hikmatyar , Rabbai, Ahmad shah Mahsud etc , equipped them , finance them and sent then back to destroy Afghanistan. He further added that we burnt Afghanistan to such an extent that former Soviet Union also burnt in it. And now Afghanistan will not be able to demand for its territor occupied by Pakistan.
But Bruce Reidel has made in his book , ” WHAT WE WON” the following terrible disclosure :
It means if there would be no Saur Revolution or coup , then Daud Khan would have sold not only the Afghan territory from Durand line to Indus Rivever on 3 Billions dollars but also from 30 to 35 million his own Pukhtuns brother as well. When I read it , I couldn’t believe on my eyes. I stood up and started strolling in the room just to get a little bit relaxed.
From Moscow’s perspective , Afghanistan appeared to be drifting from its camp to the other side in the cold war.
The Khalq and Parcham had been declared illegal in 1976 by Daoud, who feared their links to Moscow, and all Parchamists had been removed from the cabinet. Daud Khan visited Moscow for a second times in April 1977, but the visit went poorly.
Daud Kha complained about Soveit efforts to unite the two factions of the Peopole’s Democratice Pary of Afghanistan (PDPA), and Lenoid Brezhnev, Khurshchev’s successor, demanded the expulsion of Western experts working in the northern provinces on aid projects. Daud refused and walked out of the meeting.
The Soviets became convinced that Iran and CIA were turning Daud and Afghanistan against them.
The Soviet conspiracy theories are easy to understand.
In July 1977 Moscow engineered a brief reunification of the Khalq and the Parchum, assisted by the communist Tudeh Party of Iran and the Communist Party of India. The stage was set for a communist coup d’etat.
The Afghan communists were close the Moscow, but they were never obedient . The KGB never controlled them fully and never succeeded in mending the factional rift in the PDPA.
In the meanwhile the assassination of a communist PDPA member , Mir Akbar Khyber , on April 17, 1978, set the stage for the coup. The communists , who blamed Daud and the CIA for his death, organized a large demonstration in Kabul. Daud Khan responded by arresting the leaders of the two factions, Tarakai and Karmal.
On April 27 , 1978 , Khalq faction officers in Kabul mutinied and stormed the Presidential Palace with fifty tanks , supported by air strikes from the Afghan Air force. By the next day , Daud and thirty members of his family had been killed and rapidly buried in a secret mass grave. Daud Khan had been shot dead in a hail of bullets while trying to resist the coup.
Nur Mohammad Taraki, the leader of the Khalq faction, became president and prime minister , with Babrak Karmal , as depty prime minister and another khalq , Hafizullah Amin , as foreign minister. The attempt to reconcile the factions would not last long.
The new regime moved quickly to implement its agenda. The Khalq was determined to change Afghanistan at top speed. Many reforms were contradictory to the Afghan society. And on the border was Pakistan, which has never lost any opportunity to destroy Afghanistan due its territorial dispute between them. So Pakistan started to exploit the religious sentiments of Afghans and use them against its own country Afghanistan.
As Islam had been used in 1947 for the creation of Pakistan , now once again Islam was used to destroy Afghanistan.
In the mean while Khalq also turned on the Purcham faction. In early July 1978 , Taraki and Amin ousted most of the Parchamists from the government. Karmal was dispatched to Prague as ambassador to Czechoslovakia.
“Plots” by Parchamists were discovered and ringleaders were executed. As the regime became ever more extreme, it changed the national flag from traditional black , red and green tricolor to an all – red flag with a gold emblem in the upper left corner and the word Khalq , the people , at the center- an obvious imitation of the Soviet flag.
Moscow had welcomed the coup and rapidly endorsed Taraki.
Amin visited Moscow in May 1978, where he was treated as a fraternal communist leader. The Soviet military presence in the country grew tenfold, from 350 advisers and experts at the time of the Sour coup to more than 3,000 by the times of the invasion in December 1979. Several thousand more elite paratroopers guarded Bagram air base. A series of increasingly high-level Soviet military delegations visited Kabul to take stock of the situation and report back to Moscow.
Afghan radicals trained , equipped and finance by Pakistan started to destroy their own country , Afghanistan.
Then USSR Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, left, Nur Muhammad Taraki, and Leonid Brezhnev in 1979.
Taraki pressed for Soviet military intervention to help put down the revolt, but Moscow resisted. Taraki flew to Moscow to make his case directly to the Soviet Politburo. He was promised more and better weapons along with more advisers and experts , but no combat forces.
Hafizullah Amin , who took over the job of prime minister , became the regime strong man.
In September , 1979 Taraki traveled to Havana, Cuba, and then to Moscow looking for support to oust Amin. Brezhnev encouraged Taraki to get rid of Amin, whom he considered too reckless and unwilling to work with other parts of the PDPA.
Taraki returned to Kabul and moved to oust Amin, but Amin had learned from his informants that a coup was underway. On September 16 Amin struck first , ousting Tarki in a coup. On October 8, 1979, on Amin’s orders, Taraki was killed
Radio Kabul announced that Taraki had died of a “serious illness” from which he had long been suffering.
Brezhnev and the politburo were furious at Amin.
The death of Taraki in October and Amin’s takeover in Kabul was the “crucial turning point” for soviet decisionmakers. Brezhnev was personally insulted by Amin’s actions.
“ What a bastard , Amin, to murder the man with whom he made revolution” Brezhnev told his commanders.
Amin could not stop the deterioration of communist control in the countryside or the defection of more and more soldiers from Army. The communists bungled their chance at power, and the revolution was in danger. The scene was set for the Soviet invasion. In mid September the U.S. Intelligence community detected unusual activity at a Soviet elite paratrooper division base, the 105th Guards Airborne Division at Fergana air base in Uzbekistan.
It was the beginning of soviet preparation to invade Afghanistan and the birth of the 40th Red Army.
In early December , KGB head Andropov reported to Brezhnev in a personal hand-written letter that the KGB believed that the gains of Saur revolution were at risk and that Afghanistan was in danger of falling to the West.
On Christmas Eve in 1979 , the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. US policymakers surprised by a Soviet military move. Throughout 1978 and 1979 , the majority view in the US intelligence community was that Russia would not intervene with large numbers of ground troops in what increasingly appeared to be a Vietnam-like quagmire in Afghanistan.
A review of President Carter’s diary, published in 2010, shows dramatically how the president was not warned.
On the evening of December 27, elite Soviet Spetsnaz commando forces, some from KGB unit , stormed the presidential palace outside Kabul and killed Amin. It was a bloody affair, as Amin and his bodyguards fought to the end, and according to a defector from the spy service , over 100 KGB officers were killed.
The next day , two Soviet motorized rifle divisions crossed the border and entered Afghanistan. One headed for Herat and Kandahar; the other took the Salang Tunnel route to join the airborne forces in Kabul.
Babrak Karmal was brought into power by Soviet Union.
Moscow’s overriding goal was to defend the communist regime, not to take further offensive action.
The Afghan communists , however, were eager supporters of the notion of expanding Afghanistan border to the sea. Like many Afghans, the PDPA leadership supported the Pashtunistan cause. Taraki raised it directly with Brezhnev, declaring that “ we must not leave the Pakistani Pashtun and Baluch in the hands of the imperialists’ and that “ now it is possible to launch a national liberation struggle amongst these tribes and include the Pashtun and Baluchi regions in Afghanistan.” Amin was also an eager proponent of Afghan expansion. He had told the Soviet ambassador that “ the territory of Afghanistan must reach to the shores of the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean. We wish to see the sea with our own eyes ; we must have an outlet to the Indian Ocean.”
Babrak Karmal was similarly eager to repudiate and erase the Duran Line and move Afghanistan’s border to the valley of Indus River.Karmal’s new government began to take steps to make Pashtunistan a reality. Relations with Baluchi separatist groups in Afghanistan that dated back to the Daud Khan era were revitalized by Karmal’s new intelligence service, the KHAD, created with KGB support and money.
The KHAD itself grew rapidly under the direction of its new leader, Babrak’s protege Mohammad Najeebullah.
But on the other hand, Resistance got stronger , not weaker. The Afghans knew that Afghanistan was a Soviet client state. Almost thourghout the world was against the invasion of Soviet army.
The estimated cost of war for Russia was about 50 billions dollars. Afghan Air force, which totaled more than 400 aircraft and 100 helicopters, was considerably larger than the air force produced by US and NATO efforts in Afghanistan in the 21st Century. But the Afghan forces suffered from poor morale and often were distrusted by the 40th Red Army command.
CIA estimated that between 1980 and 1985 the Soviets lost up to 750 aircraft in Afghanistan.
On the other hand according to CIA , the war in Vietnam between 1964 and 1976 cost the United States $330 billion with half million soldiers to South East Asia.
The Soviets fought the war “ on the cheap and nasty”. In the mid 1980s, the Red Army was fighting in Afghanistan with about 6 percent of its available divisions, financed by over 2 percent of its total defense spending. It was not an impressive effort for a global superpower. In 1945 the Soviet army had invaded Manchuria to defeat the Japanese with a force of more than 1.5 million men and more that 5,000 tanks and 5,000 aircrafts; it certainly could have mustered an army in Afghanistan as large as the US army in Vietnam.
The best solution of Afghan war for Soviet union was to invade Pakistan . The Soviet Union had sufficient forces in 1980s to over run all of Pakistan if it had chosen to do so . And if India would have been taken into confidence to invade Pakistan , without any doubt , India would be possitive and this was alwasy Zia ul haq greatest nighmare. Pakistan had only one modern armoured division and Soviet Union had dozesns. Moscow had the capability to pursue thsse but it was not don . As as a result Soviet Union was defeated and Pakistan succeeded in its agenda to destablize and destroy Afghanistan. But unfortunately the same blunder was committed by US , NATO and ISAF forces inf Afghanista not to invade Pakistan and now again all the terrorists and militants cards are in the hands of Pakistan and Pakistan uses it according to its own present and future plans in Afghanistan to keep it unstable.
1986 was a decisive year. Zia ul Haq decided to escalate the war and told Reagon in January 1986 that he was ready to take greater risks to win the war.
On the other hand , Russian leadership gradually decided that the war was unwinnable. Soviet decision making has to be regarded as a major cause of Russia’s ultimate defeat in the war. Both military and civilian staff of the Kremlin were to blame.
In Afghanistan , the entire war was fought in local actions. To the extent that the Mujahideen had a command structure on national scale , it was the Pakistan intelligence service , the ISI, not the Afghan commanders or the Afghan political parties. The safe haven was provided by Zia government. For Afghan Mujaheddin the training camps were organized on the soil of Pakistan.
In the meanwhile , Brezhnev died in November 1982. The father of the war , Andropov , succeeded Brezhnev. But due to his poor health , he died in 1984 and was replaced by Konstantin Chernenko. But he also died in March 1985.
Michail Gorbachev came into office with an agenda that was much different from that of his three predecessors. He wanted to wind down the war not to continue it. He told Karmal in Moscow that the Red Army was giving to withdraw and that the PDPA would to have to defend itself without Russian combat troops.
A year later Moscow sacked Karmal and replaced him with Dr. Najeebullah. But it still took Gorbachev four years to get out of Afghanistan.
The war in Afghanistan that took place between 1979 and 1989 was a pivotal event in modern history.
The Soviet army left Afghanistan in February 1989; the Berlin Wall fell in November of the same year; East and West Germany were reunited a year later and the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1991.
The Afghan war also marked the beginning of a new ear, the era of global Jihad.
Afghan war in 1980s was an intelligence war between United States and its allies and the Soviet Union it allies , the Afghan communist Party.
The CIA was given the mission-first by president Jimmy Carter and then by his successor Ronald Reagan – of turning Afghanistan into a “Russian Vietnam.”
In 1989, when the Soviets crossed the border to go home after the most successful covert intelligence operation in US history , the CIA’s chief in Islamabad famously cabled headquarters this simple message ; “ WE WON”.
For the United States , the secret war in Afghanistan was inexpensive in terms of both blood and money. The total cost for that 1979-89 period was about $3 billions. The Vietnam War cost the United state more than $300 billions and the Iraq War cost well over $1trillion. But the very price was paid by Afghan people, 2 Millions were killed, 5 millions were made homeless and millions were made refugees in other countries.
One War and four different agendas:
- First , President Jimmy Carter wanted Afghanistan to become a Soviet quagmire.
- Second , President Reagan initially had the same agenda, but then when the Soviet army was going to be defeated and Soviets will leave Afghanistan, it was for him.
- Third and Fourth , Pakistani President Zia ul haq had two agendas, one to destroy Afghanistan to such an extent that it will never be able to demand for its territory from Durand line to Indus River, occupied by Pakistan. And second agenda to make atomic bomb on the cost of 2 Million Afghans lives.
All those goals were achieved in 1989, but Afghans were left in that quagmire on the mercy of Pakistan Army and ISI. Soviet Army left Afghanistan but Afghanistan was handed over to the different religious group , covertly directed by Pakistan intelligence organization ,ISI. Civil war started in Afghanistan fueled by Pakistan Army, ISI and Establishment to destroy Afghanistan further.
After 1989 another era started in Afghanistan. The civil war started between the various factions of Mujahideen and underground Pakistan started to prepare another group from students of the religious schools : Madrassas’ who were already radicalized in these Madrassas. That group is called in now known as Taliban. By the help of Pakistan Army , ISI and Establishment , Taliban came into power in Afghanistan in 1996 who started to lead Afghanistan to stone age which was the real and covert agenda of Pakistan.
After 9/11, when USA , it allies and NATO decided to invade Afghanistan because Osama bin laden was there , his training camps were there , Taliban were harboring them, at that time Pakistan took U turn overtly and started support US in the war on terror and sold its allies Taliban on 25 billions dollars. US gave Pakistan this amount to fight aginst the militants , terrorists and Al Qaeda . But when Taliban , Osma ben laden and other al qaeda leaders fled from Afghanistan and went to Pakistan, Pakistan provided them training comps and organized Quetta Shura, using a part of that money which had been given to Pakistan to fight against terrorists.
Since 2011 till to date , Pakistan has been harboring these militants and terrorists, their training camps are there. But when Taliban government in Afghanistan was doing the same , they were invaded but why the USA , NATO and ISAF are not invading Pakistan? WHY DOUBLE STANDARD? It means that Afghanistan is a weak country and the Afghan blood is very cheap?
So due to the Pakistan’s double standard policy , US , NATO and ISAF forces couldn’t get the expected results.
And Pakistan continues its dirty game in Afghanistan.
Writer: Mashal Khan Takkar
Editor in Chief
THE VOICE TIMES (TVT)