Who made Afghanistan a bleeding wound.
Some people say that the history is not important. But they are terribly mistaken. You can not understand what is going on in Afghanistan today without understanding its history.
What afghanistan is. It is mosiac of the Pukhtuns, tajik, Hazara , Uzbek and more where the pukhtus population is more than all other nationalities. We have to discuss it from historical point of view.
In 19th Century , the British Empire consolidated its position in its colony,India. Slowly and gradually even they organized its own army . Then they decided to protect India from any other invaders and enjoy the wealth of India all alone.
At that time in south Asian and Central Asian regions , two empires were busy in their expansionist ideology. One empire was the British empire , sitting in London and the other was Russian Empire sitting in Sankt Petersburg. So the main idea of the British Empire was to protect India from the Russian Empire.
India was surrounded by sea from three sides and north-west side had a continuation of huge hills where there were three passes , Khyber Pass, Kurram Pass and Bolan Pass and historically all the invaders Alexander the Great , Persian, central Asian and even the Afghan empire had been invading India through these Passes. So the British empire decided to reach and control these Passes first indirectly and then directly to protect India from the Russian empire’s advancement.
But historically since 1400 B.C. and even before , on the land from Indus river to Oxus river , a nation has been living , called the Pashtuns and these passes located in this area also belonged to them. So any activities on these passes would definitely effect these Pashtun Tribes . As they never wanted any invader to occupy their land. Therefore they have been fighting for thousands of years with the invaders.
Ranjeet singh , the sikh leader, invaded Afghan territory Peshawar with the help of the British Empire in 1834. So the British Empire controlled the above mentioned three passes indirectly through the sikhs.
But when Russian’s expansionist activities were getting increased in the Central Asian regions, the British Empire felt that Russia could invade India too. So the British Empire sent one delegation, led by Alexander Burns to Afghanistan. At that time Amir Dost Mohammad Khan was the king of Afghanistan. The British demanded from Amir Dost Mohammad Khan to sign a treaty with the British Empire against the Russian empire. Amir Dost Mohammad Khan told Alexander Burns, that he was agree to sign the treaty against Russia on one condition, if the British will not help the sikhs when Afghanistan will invade Peshawar and take its territory back .
But the British did not want it because they had its own plan to occupy Peshawar in the future and control the three passes diretly.. The British thought that the Sikhs were not the indigenous people and they could be easily defeated, but if Peshawar would again come under control of Afghanistan , then for British it will be difficult to defeat the indigenous people, the Pashtuns.
So the British delegation returned back to India without signing any treaty with Afghanistan.
As a result the British invaded Afghanistan in 1839 which is called first Anglo-Afghan war. The British and Russian both were protecting their interests but the battle ground was Afghanistan . They never wanted to confront each other directly.
But that war was a disaster for both the British and Afghans. And 16500 men, women and British army were slaughtered when they were retreating from Afghanistan. And deliberately one survivor Doctor Brydon was let to go and the Afghans gave him message to tell the British that Afghanistan is our land.
In 1849 , the British invaded Peshawar and thus they sat on the doors of the three passes entering into India.
In 1878 once again , the British invaded Afghanistan when Amir Sher Ali Khan was the king of Afghanistan.
But within one month again the Afghans started to attack the British in Afghanistan and when the British were pushed out by the people of Afghanistan , a British general , General Robert destroyed one of the oldest and most beautiful covered market in Asia, to punish the citizens of Kabul. That was one of the deeds of the ” civilized nation”.
So, the British found that they could not defeat the Afghans, they conquer them, destroy their cities, villages , kill the people but again they start to attack and defeat us, so they decided to use their famous formula DIVIDE AND RULE.
There fore, on12th Novemer, 1893 , they imposed a line of hatred , the DURAND LINE, on Afghanistan by force to divide the Pashtuns and weaken their power. However, Afghanistan government and specially the Afghan people have never recognized this line of evil.
The irony is that there are house on the durand line even now that one door of it opens into Pakistan and the other into Afghanistan. All of them are pulhtuns ,one nation, one blood, one soul, one language, one culture, same history , so no one can divide them by these type of imiginary lines like Durand line.
In 1919 another war was broke up between the Afghanistan and British India , but in this war Afghanistan got its sovereignty under the leadership of Amir Amanullah Khan.
After the second world war when the British decided to leave India, they handed over the land of Afghanistan from Durand line to Indus River to its illegal child ‘ Pakistan’. And so the wound which the British Empire had created on the body of Afghanistan in 1893 continued to bleed and that wound is bleeding till today due to the hostile policy of Pakistan towards Afghanistan.
The partition of India in 1947 was a terrible mistake. ( Stanely wolpert)
The role of Pakistan since 1947 in Afghanistan.
When imposed on the indigenous people by the British empire in 1947 , Pakistan continued the same British policy about Afghanistan.
On 26th of July, 1949 , Pakistan bombed a village in Afghanistan , called “Maghulgai” and killed 23 Afghans.
The Pukhtuns were never ruled by the British , and after Partion of India , Pakistan took over the timeless situation where local tribes in this area continued to control their own affairs, and to move to and from across the Durand line as much as they pleased. By and large Pakistan left them to get on with their trading and feuding without government intervention. The British had found this an easy option and so did Pakistan.
In 1973, Brigadier Nasirualla babar , who became General afterward and then interior minister , was told by the then Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto that the Durand line agreement is expiring in 1993 after 100 years agreement between the Afghan King Abdur Rehman khan and British India , so Afghanistan will demand for its territory from Durand line to Indus River, therefore Afghanistan must burn.
Nasirullah babar invited a few radicals from Afghanistan. They with their followers were trained , financed and equipped by weapons to destabilize and destroy Afghanistan.
In 1974 , in the Punjsher Valley’s uprising , Pakistan army, ISI and establishment were behind it.
In 1978 when revolution took place in Afghanistan , Pakistan started direct intervention in Afghanistan.
General Akhter Abdul Rehman Khan DG ISI ( Inter-Service Intelligent) also said that Kabul must burn.
Pakistan destroyed Afghanistan by generations. Since 1973 Pakistan started to train the Afghans militants both in Afghanistan and Pakistan to destabilize and destroy Afghanistan. Pakistan also established Madrassas ( religious schools) to prepare the future Jihadistt for proxy wars in Afghanistan. As a result the society of Afghanistan and the Pukhtun belt of Pakistan was radicalized completely. So during the period of insurgency in Afghanistan 5 million people left the country, 5 millions were displaced internally and two millions were killed.. So not only this generation but Pakistan destroyed the coming generations of Afghanistan too. The infrastructure of each and every institution in Afghanistan was destroyed.
However, all these interventions were the blunt violations of the article # 2 in the Durand line agreement.
Since 1978 , among the refugees who came to Pakistan from Afghanistan , there were about 48 various political organizations, including religious, liberal , nationalist and moderate organizations. But Pakistan banned all these organizations except seven (7) rigid, religious and fundamentalist organizations, , because Pakistan knew that if the Afghan Nationalist groups will succeed to defeat the Soviet Union , then they can also demand from Pakistan for their land from Durand Line to Indus River.
All those seven religious groups were headquarted in exile in Pakistan.
Before starting interference in Afghanistan , Lieutenant-General Akhter Abdur Rehan was appointed as DG ISI by the dictator zia ul haq.
A special Bureau for Afghanistan , called Afghan Bureau was established in Peshawar. And afterward , Brigadier Yousaf was appointed as the head of Afghan Bureau by the DG ISI, General Akhter Abdul Rehman Khan.
According to Brigadier Yousaf , the activities of Afghan Bureau were Ambushes , assassinations, attacks on supply convoys, bridges , piplines and airfields.
Brigadier Yousaf writes in his book ” Afghanistan, the Bear Trap:
I was tasked not only with training and arming Afghan Mujahideen , but planning their operations inside Afghanistan. I had to attempt to coordinate one of the largest guerilla campaigns in modern times , with a staff of sixty officers and 300 seniors NCOs ( non-commissioned officers) and men from Pakistan army.
I was told to operate under an elaborate smokescreen of secrecy, because Pakistan was denying to supply ammunition , weapon and training to guerillas. Even more taboo was the fact that the ISI was training the Mujahideen , plaining their combat operations and often accompanying them inside Afghanistan as advisers. And in late 1991 these covert activities of the Mujahideen , ISI and Pakistan were no longer secret.
What further Brigadier Yousaf says:
“However, I am careful that nothing I say can damage current or future operations in Afghanistan.” It means that not only the current operations but Pakistan had the future operations plan already.
However another ISI person , Colonel Imam ( his real name was Bregadier Sultan Amir Tarar ) said in a TV interview ,“ As a whole we trained 195000 Afghan jihadists during the war in Afghanistan.”
Just imagine if at that time they were 195000, how many they will be now?
Later the people he had trained, killed him . He got what he deserved.
General Akhter Abdul Rehma had made his presentation to Dictator General Zia , recommending that Pakistan should back the Afghan resistance in their guerilla war. He urged Zia to take the military option. It would mean Pakistan would covertly supporting the guerrillas with arms, ammunition , money , intelligence , training and operational advice. Above all it would entail offering the border areas of NWFP ( Now khyber Pukhtunkhwa)and Baluchistan as a sanctuary for both the refugees and Guerrillas and General Zia ul Haq agreed.
According to Brigadier Yousaf , Initially American disappointed General Zia. They adopted a wait and see attitude. At that time the advice of Pentagon and CIA was that , with or without Pakistan’s backing , Afghanistan was a last cause. They believed that the Soviet Army would control the country within a few weeks. Why therefore , get involved? Why throw good money after bad and needlessly antagonize the Soviets by the aiding the Afghan Resistance. it was a country within the Soviet sphere of influence and the US policy-makers had seen it slipping into the communist camp for over twenty years.
Another ex-DG ISI Lieutenant-General Hamid Gul (whohad replaced General akhter) said in a TV interview, that for two years, Pakistan alone was fighting the war in Afghanistan along with the Muhahideen and CIA joined us after two years.
At that time budget with Pakistan for running the country had left only for 23 days.
So Pakistan wanted to use Afghan Jihad to collect money and to fulfill its desire to gain the following objectives by that money:
1. To destroy and weaken Afghanistan to such an extent that Afghanistan will never be able to demand for its territory occupied by Pakistan from Durand Line to Indus River.
To make their atomic bomb unchecked by the international community. USA had turned blind eye on the development of Atomic bomb by Pakistan.
General Hamid Gul said in a TV interview on January 26, 2015 that” America never trusted us and we never trusted America. We supported America in Afghan Jihad for our own benefits. We built nuclear bomb, got F-16 Fighters , submarine, helicopters and a lot of other defense equipment.
” Pakistan used America and the international community for its own benefits in Afghanistan.”
The role of Afghan bureau was top secret. General Zia ul haq told General Akhtar Abdul Rehman Khan, “The water in Afghanistan must boil at the right temperature .”
Brigadier Yousaf writes, “Like all armies, Guerrilla forces can not servive indefintely wihtout adequate bases to which they can withdraw from time to time to rest and refit. They need the means with which to fight, they need resupplying , they need training and they need intelligence. Pakistan provided all these things to Muhahideen to fight in Afghanistan.”
The border area of Pakistan had grown into a vast , sprawling administrative base for the Jehad. The Mujahideen came there for arms, they came to rest, they came to settle families into the camps , they came for training and they came for medical attention. All these activities were taking place under the supervision of Afghan Bureau controlled by ISI.
Hundreds of thousands of tons of arms and ammunition were distributed among Mujahidden, several billion dollars were spent on this immense logistic excercise and ISI teams regularly entered Afghnistan alongside the Mujahideen. ……… to be continued….
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Mashal Khan Takkar
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